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Infertility Classification and external resources Specialty Urology, gynecology ICD-10 N46, N97.0 ICD-9-CM 606, 628 DiseasesDB 21627 MedlinePlus 001191 eMedicine med/3535 med/1167 MeSH D007246 Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means. It is usually not the natural state of a healthy adult organism, except notably among certain eusocial species (mostly haplodiploid insects).In humans, infertility may describe a woman who is unable to conceive as well as being unable to carry a pregnancy to full term. There are many biological and other causes of infertility, including some that medical intervention can treat. Estimates from 1997 suggest that worldwide "between three and seven per cent of all couples or women have an unresolved problem of infertility. Many more couples, however, experience involuntary childlessness for at least one year: estimates range from 12% to 28%." 20-30% of infertility cases are due to male infertility, 20-35% are due to female infertility, and 25-40% are due to combined problems in both parts. In 10-20% of cases, no cause is found. The most common cause of female infertility is ovulatory problems which generally manifest themselves by sparse or absent menstrual periods. Male infertility is most commonly due to deficiencies in the semen, and semen quality is used as a surrogate measure of male fecundity.Women who are fertile experience a natural period of fertility before and during ovulation, and they are naturally infertile during the rest of the menstrual cycle. Fertility awareness methods are used to discern when these changes occur by tracking changes in cervical mucus or basal body temperature. ^ Makar RS, Toth TL (2002). "The evaluation of infertility". Am J Clin Pathol. 117 (Suppl): S95–103. doi:10.1309/w8lj-k377-dhra-cp0b. PMID 14569805.  ^ Himmel W, Ittner E, Kochen MM, Michelmann HW, Hinney B, Reuter M, Kallerhoff M, Ringert RH; Ittner, E; Kochen, MM; Michelmann, HW; Hinney, B; Reuter, M; Kallerhoff, M; Ringert, RH (1997). "Voluntary Childlessness and being Childfree". British Journal of General Practice 47 (415): 111–8. PMC 1312893. PMID 9101672.  ^ a b "ART fact sheet (July 2014)". European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.  ^ "Causes of infertility". National Health Service.  Page last reviewed 15/07/2014 ^ Cite error: The named reference who2010 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
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