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History of Ethiopia

History of Ethiopia Prehistory Antiquity to 1st cent. BC Aksum to 10th cent. AD Zagwe dynasty to 1268 Early Solomonic period 1270–1529 Ethiopian–Adal War 1527–1543 Great Oromo migration 1543 – 17th cent. Habesh Eyalet 1557 – 17th cent. Early Gondar period 1632–1769 Aussa Sultanate 1734–1974 Zemene Mesafint 1769–1855 Unification 1855–1913 First Italo–Ethiopian War 1895–1896 Pre-Italian Modernization 1913–1936 Second Italo–Ethiopian War 1935–1936 Italian East Africa 1936–1941 East African Campaign 1941 Italian guerrilla war 1941–1943 Post-Italian Modernization 1941–1974 Federation with Eritrea 1952–1962 Eritrean Independence 1961–1991 Ethiopian Civil War 1974–1991 Ethiopian general election 2005 Ogaden conflict 2007–2008 War in Somalia 2006–2009 Military Aristocracy Currency (Aksumite) Emperor v t e This article covers the prehistory and history of Ethiopia, from its emergence as an empire under the Aksumites to its current form as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, as well as the history of other areas in what is now Ethiopia such as the Afar Triangle. The Ethiopian Empire (Abyssinia) was first founded by Habesha people in the Ethiopian Highlands. Due to migration and imperial expansion, it grew to include many other primarily Afro-Asiatic-speaking communities, including Amhara, Tigray, Oromos, Somalis, Afars, Sidama, Gurage, Agaw and Harari, among others.The earliest possible mention of Ethiopia in records was by the Ancient Egyptians who may have referred to it as the Land of Punt. The earliest kingdom to rise to power in Ethiopia was the Sabean influenced D'mt in the 10th century BC, which established its capital in Yeha. In the first century AD the Aksumite Kingdom rose to power in Tigray Region with its capital at Aksum and grew into a major power on the Red Sea, subjugating Yemen and Meroe and converting to Christianity in the early fourth century. The Aksumite empire fell into decline with the rise of Islam, forcing the Ethiopians to move south into the highlands for refuge. The Aksumites gave way to the Zagwe Dynasty who established a new capital at Lalibela, before giving way to the Solomonic Dynasty in the 13th century. During the early Solomonic period Ethiopia went through military reforms and imperial expansion that made it dominate the Horn of Africa. Portuguese missionaries arrived at this time.In 1529 an invasion by the Muslim Adal Sultanate supported by the Ottoman Empire devastated the highlands, and was only deterred by a Portuguese intervention. With both Ethiopia and Adal greatly weakened by the war, the Oromo people were able to migrate into the highlands, conquering the remains of the Adal Sultanate and pushing deep into Ethiopia. The Portuguese presence also increased, while the Ottomans began to push into what is now Eritrea, creating the Habesh Eyalet. The Portuguese brought modern weapons and baroque architecture to Ethiopia, and in 1622 converted the emperor Susenyos I to Catholicism, sparking a civil war which ended in his abdication and an expulsion of all Catholics from Ethiopia. A new capital was established at Gondar in 1632, and a period of peace and prosperity ensued until the country was split apart by warlords in the 18th century during the Zemene Mesafint.Ethiopia was reunified in 1855 by Tewodros II, beginning Ethiopia's modern history. Ethiopia began to go through a slow modernisation process, and defended itself from an Egyptian invasion in 1874. Under Menelik II Ethiopia defeated an Italian invasion in 1896 and came to be recognised as a legitimate state by European powers. A more rapid modernisation took place under Menelik II and Haile Selassie, however this was not enough to detter another Italian invasion in 1935. The modern Italian army annexed Ethiopia and combined it with its other colonies to create Italian East Africa, forcing Haile Selassie to flee the country. A joined force of British and Ethiopian rebels managed to drive the Italians out of the country in 1941, and Haile Selassie was returned to the throne. Ethiopia and Eritrea joined to a federation, but when Haile Selassie ended the federation in 1961 and made Eritrea a province of Ethiopia a war for Eritrean independence occurred, lasting until 1991.Haile Selassie was overthrown in 1974 and the militaristic Derg Regime came to power. In 1977 Somalia invaded to try and annex the Ogaden region, but were pushed back by Ethiopian, Soviet, and Cuban forces. In 1977 and 1978 the government tortured or killed hundreds of thousands of suspected enemies in the Red Terror. After a famine in 1984 killing 1 million people, the Derg fell in 1991 and the Federal Democratic Republic was established. Ethiopia remains impoverished, but its economy has become one of the world's fastest growing. Cite error: There are tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist}} template (see the help page).
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