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Plasmonic nanoparticles

Plasmonic nanoparticles are particles whose electron density can couple with electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths that are far larger than the particle due to the nature of the dielectric-metal interface between the medium and the particles: unlike in a pure metal where there is a maximum limit on what size wavelength can be effectively coupled based on the material size.What differentiates these particles from normal surface plasmons is that plasmonic nanoparticles also exhibit interesting scattering, absorbance, and coupling properties based on their geometries and relative positions. These unique properties have made them a focus of research in many applications including solar cells, spectroscopy, signal enhancement for imaging, and cancer treatment.Plasmons are the oscillations of free electrons that are the consequence of the formation of a dipole in the material due to electromagnetic waves. The electrons migrate in the material to restore its initial state; however, the light waves oscillate, leading to a constant shift in the dipole that forces the electrons to oscillate at the same frequency as the light. This coupling only occurs when the frequency of the light is equal to or less than the plasma frequency and is greatest at the plasma frequency that is therefore called the resonant frequency. The scattering and absorbance cross-sections describe the intensity of a given frequency to be scattered or absorbed. Many fabrication processes exist for fabricating such nanoparticles, depending on the desired size and geometry. ^ Eustis, S., El-Sayed, M. A., "Why gold nanoparticles are more precious than pretty gold: Noble metal surface plasmon resonance and its enhancement of the radiative and nonradiative properties of nanocrystals of different shapes", The Royal Society of Chemistry, vol. 35, pp. 209-217, 2006. ^ Zeng, S.; Yu, X.; Law, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Hu, R.; Dinh, X. Q.; Ho, H. P.; Yong, K. T. (2013). "Size dependence of Au NP-enhanced surface plasmon resonance based on differential phase measurement". Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 176: 1128–1133. doi:10.1016/j.snb.2012.09.073.
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