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Jupiter   Pronunciation i/'d?u?p?t?r/ Adjective Jovian Epoch J2000 Aphelion 816,520,800 km (5.458104 AU) Perihelion 740,573,600 km (4.950429 AU) Semi-major axis 778,547,200 km (5.204267 AU) Eccentricity 0.048775 Orbital period 4,332.59 days 11.8618 yr 10,475.8 Jupiter solar days Synodic period 398.88 days Average orbital speed 13.07 km/s Mean anomaly 18.818° Inclination 1.305° to Ecliptic 6.09° to Sun's equator 0.32° to Invariable plane Longitude of ascending node 100.492° Argument of perihelion 275.066° Satellites 64 Mean radius 69,911 ± 6 km Equatorial radius 71,492 ± 4 km 11.209 Earths Polar radius 66,854 ± 10 km 10.517 Earths Flattening 0.06487 ± 0.00015 Surface area 6.1419×1010 km2 121.9 Earths Volume 1.4313×1015 km3 1321.3 Earths Mass 1.8986×1027 kg 317.8 Earths 1/1047 Sun Mean density 1.326 g/cm3 Equatorial surface gravity 24.79 m/s2 2.528 g Escape velocity 59.5 km/s Sidereal rotation period 9.925 h (9 h 55 m 30 s) Equatorial rotation velocity 12.6 km/s 45,300 km/h Axial tilt 3.13° North pole right ascension 268.057° 17 h 52 min 14 s North pole declination 64.496° Albedo 0.343 (Bond) 0.52 (geom.) Surface temp.    1 bar level    0.1 bar min mean max 165 K 112 K Apparent magnitude -1.6 to -2.94 Angular diameter 29.8" — 50.1" Surface pressure 20–200 kPa (cloud layer) Scale height 27 km Composition 89.8±2.0% hydrogen (H2) 10.2±2.0% helium ~0.3% methane ~0.026% ammonia ~0.003% hydrogen deuteride (HD) 0.0006% ethane 0.0004% water Ices: ammonia water ammonium hydrosulfide(NH4SH) Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet within the Solar System. It is a gas giant with mass one-thousandth that of the Sun but is two and a half times the mass of all the other planets in our Solar System combined. Jupiter is classified as a gas giant along with Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Together, these four planets are sometimes referred to as the Jovian or outer planets.The planet was known by astronomers of ancient times and was associated with the mythology and religious beliefs of many cultures. The Romans named the planet after the Roman god Jupiter. When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude of -2.94, making it on average the third-brightest object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus. (Mars can briefly match Jupiter's brightness at certain points in its orbit.)Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium; it may also have a rocky core of heavier elements. Because of its rapid rotation, Jupiter's shape is that of an oblate spheroid (it possesses a slight but noticeable bulge around the equator). The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries. A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the 17th century when it was first seen by telescope. Surrounding the planet is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. There are also at least 64 moons, including the four large moons called the Galilean moons that were first discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Ganymede, the largest of these moons, has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury.Jupiter has been explored on several occasions by robotic spacecraft, most notably during the early Pioneer and Voyager flyby missions and later by the Galileo orbiter. The most recent probe to visit Jupiter was the Pluto-bound New Horizons spacecraft in late February 2007. The probe used the gravity from Jupiter to increase its speed. Future targets for exploration in the Jovian system include the possible ice-covered liquid ocean on the moon Europa. Cite error: There are tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{Reflist}} template or a tag; see the help page.
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