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This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (May 2012) Dunya (??????) is originally an Arabic word that was passed to many other languages such as ( Persian, Dari, Pashto, Bengali, Punjabi, Urdu, Hindi, Kurdish, Nepali, Turkish, Arumanian and North-Caucasian languages(Dünya) and loanword in Malay language and Indonesian language dunia as well as Greek d????a?) which means the temporal world—and its earthly concerns and possessions—as opposed to the eternal spiritual realm, or the hereafter (akhira). Dunya literally means 'closer' or 'lower'. In the Qur'an, dunya and akhira represent oppositions in temporal, spatial and moral dimensions: now and later, below and above, evil and good, respectively. Two Qur'anic ayat (verses) illustrating these points are:* "Ordain for us the good in this world and in the hereafter ." (Surah Al A'râf 7:156)* "You are my friend in this world and the next ." (Surah Yusuf 12:101)Muslims are encouraged in the Qur'an 47:24 to ponder the verses of the Qur'an itself, and to do their best to not get too attached to this temporal existence and its trappings. In Islam, dunya is a test; success and failure lead to paradise and hell respectively Quran 57:20.
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